Serum Dickkopf-3 Level in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

2 Clinical Pathology department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Egypt


Background: Dickkopf-3 (DKK-3) has garnered interest as a potential biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring kidney and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Herein, we aimed to evaluate the level of DKK-3 in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and detect its correlation with CVD.

Patients and methods: The study involved 68 cases categorized into four groups. The study protocol involved conducting a comprehensive medical history assessment, a standard physical examination, laboratory investigations, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the serum DKK3 levels.

Results: Our findings indicated a significant elevation in serum DKK-3 levels among CVDs patients who suffer from renal impairment and those with end-stage renal disease who were on dialysis. Additionally, our outcomes revealed a significant positive correlation between DKK-3 and various biomarkers levels, including SGPT (r = 0.336, p = 0.005), parathyroid hormone (r = 0.425, p < 0.001), creatinine (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.312, p = 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = 0.268, p = 0.027), and triglycerides (r = 0.256, p = 0.035). Our results indicate a significant negative correlation between DKK-3 levels and both eGFR (r = -0.507, p < 0.001) and hemoglobin levels (r = -0.33, p = 0.006). Additionally, an independent association was observed between the serum levels of DKK-3 and creatinine, LDL-C, and LVEDD.

Conclusion: DKK-3 may serve as a novel biomarker for the progression of CKD. Moreover, DKK3 can potentially function as a biomarker for CVD among individuals with renal disease.


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